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None of the Union generals with an interest in the Shenandoah Valley — Shields, Banks or McClellan — could believe that Jackson would attack while being so outnumbered. There, Jackson brought his brigade up to try to stop the Federal advance. A subordinate had found a high clearing from which he could see Kimball’s men coming off Pritchard’s Hill. By mid-summer, Jackson was able to join Confederate General Robert E. Lee to assist in defending the Confederate capital. He is best known today for his simple, yet impressive, nickname. Despite this heavy-handed interference, McClellan came within six miles of the Confederate capital and came very close to defeating the main Confederate army that June. While technically correct, the honor, if not the rank, more accurately belonged to Kimball. succeed. Hooker's army was thoroughly beaten and forced to retreat from the field. While he was away, a second command arrived from Jackson ordering him to move up the entire brigade. Then, on March 17, Banks sent Brig. Free shipping for many products! Although widely regarded as Jackson’s best general, Garnett was arrested immediately after the battle for his unauthorized retreat. ‘Say no more of it,’ Jackson replied. Kimball, also a veteran of the Mexican War, thus became the third commanding officer to lead the division in just three weeks. What Battles did Stonewall Jackson fight in? From then on, Thomas Jonathan Jackson would be known as Stonewall Jackson. Feature. At the very least, Jackson’s 3,600 men had tied up almost 65,000 Union troops at a time when a ‘decisive campaign’ to end the war quickly was being undertaken. Jackson's turning movement completely crumbled Hooker's right (May 2, 1863). Fortunately, the two brigades that had borne the brunt of the Union fighting were too disorganized for effective pursuit. The Confederate general didn’t want to fight — he wanted to pray. In August, Jackson had a starring role at the Battle of Second Manassas, also called the Second Battle of Bull Run and the bigger of the two Mannassas battles. The War; "Stonewall" Jackson, His Campaigns, and Battles, the Regiment as I Saw Them Cumberland, Md. In order to prevent a separate Union army from advancing against Richmond from the north, Jackson moved thousands of Confederate soldiers into the Shenandoah Valley, presenting a threat to Federal forces in Northern Virginia. Lincoln and Halleck decided to recall the Army of the Potoma… But by late in the afternoon, these men had moved to their left to cover their retreating comrades. Among the charges was that Ashby allowed the other half of his troops to wander about the Kernstown area on their own because Ashby did not believe they would be needed until the next day. Did you know… We have over 220 college History. Around 4 p.m., he moved up his artillery (Chew’s Battery, Virginia Horse) and began shelling Union skirmishers posted on the southern outskirts of Winchester. © copyright 2003-2021 Study.com. His Christian faith was a consuming part of his personality. Garnett now got news of Jackson’s second set of orders and, totally confused, halted the 33rd Virginia in place while he went off to get clarification. His clear understanding of how to best use firepower allowed hi… Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, The First Battle of Bull Run: Summary, Significance & Facts, What Is the Battle of Antietam? How to Become a Retail Buyer: Requirements & Skills, Universities That Let Students Create Their Own Major, Average Starting Salary of a Finance Major, Diary of an OCW Music Student, Week 8: Tuning with Pure Major and Minor Triads, Diary of an OCW Music Student, Week 3: Octave Equivalence, Circular Pitch Systems and the Major Triad, 2 Ways Picking a Major Early Could Get You a Better Job, Nuclear Medicine Physician: Requirements, Salary & Training. Garnett brought up most of the Stonewall Brigade, taking up position along the wall to Fulkerson’s right. During his independent command in the Shenandoah, Jackson ultimately defeated several different Union armies sent to stop him, effectively keeping Union reinforcements from being sent to Richmond. The path to the Turnpike remained virtually unguarded. Over March 19 and 20, Shields brought his entire division back to Winchester. Unfortunately, the retreat soon became a rout. If the general government should persist in the measures now threatened, there must be war. Both sides quickly recognized its significance. In it, Shields affirmed to Banks that only a small Confederate cavalry contingent remained in the Shenandoah Valley. By the end of the year, however, he had 10,000 men of varying degrees of quality, including his old command at Bull Run, the 1st Virginia (Stonewall) Brigade. Leading his force on one of the most brilliant campaigns in military history during the summer of 1862, Jackson marched around the Shenandoah Valley and held off three Union armies while providing relief for Confederates pinned down on the James Peninsula by George McClellans army. While the Confederates lost at Antietam, Jackson performed very well. After the Confederate victory at Manassas, Jackson was promoted to the rank of major general. To keep the valley out of Union hands, Jackson was ordered there in November 1861. The religious yet pragmatic Jackson knew a battle was upcoming, and despite his preferences, he deployed his troops accordingly outside the tiny Shenandoah Valley town. just create an account. The Battle of Bull Run was fought between the Union and Confederate soldiers on 21st July 1861. In mid-September, Jackson led a multifaceted expedition to capture Harpers Ferry, where 12,000 Union soldiers were stationed. There, the first of a number of faulty intelligence reports that led eventually to the Battle of Kernstown was delivered. ', 'Captain, my religious belief teaches me to feel as safe in battle as in bed. The crisis was reached. Jackson’s courage and composure really came out in this great battle. This is also known as the Battle of First Bull Run and was the first major battle of the Civil War. He had suffered a broken arm from a shell fragment. Kimball, probably in an effort to paint himself as an energetic, bold leader, later put the completion time of these movements as early as 8 a.m. Other sources set the action between 11 a.m. and 1 p.m. Jackson played a prominent role in nearly all military engagements in the Eastern Theater of the war until his death, and had a key part in winning many significant battles. Jackson's brigade became the center point of a new Confederate line. The Battle of Kernstown was, all things considered, a minor one. His gunners were so green they did not even know how to load their only two cannon. The total Confederate losses over the two days numbered just 80 dead, 375 wounded, and 263 captured or missing. Those were the thoughts of Maj. Gen. Thomas Jonathan ‘Stonewall’ Jackson on the afternoon of March 23, 1862, as he surveyed the ground around Kernstown, Va. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? The fighting now became furious as the stone wall changed hands twice over the next two hours. Ashby got his command back three days later after a vigorous protest. From here, he had full command of the battlefield below. Union commanders were not idle during this time, either, but their attention was focused farther to the east, on the Maryland side of the Potomac River. On July 21, 1861, the Battle of First Manassas was fought. Jackson was also an extremely pious man. If, however, an uncooperative Union commander got in the way on Sunday, then that must be God’s will, after all. 's' : ''}}. Fortunately, the duel never took place — the politician’s name was Abraham Lincoln. There they sat all day while the battle raged far to the west. Known as Manassas Junction in the Confederacy and Bull Run in the Union, it was a messy affair. The preliminaries for the Battle of Kernstown began the previous day. Jackson's death was a severe blow to the Confederacy. The northern fork snaked back toward the hill where Jackson didn’t want to go anyway, while the southern fork was both short and shallow. Under his command at his first Valley headquarters in Winchester were 2,000 mostly inexperienced troops. In addition, Lincoln took a further 10,000-man division and sent it to join 5,000 other Union troops guarding against Jackson in west Virginia (not yet a Federal state at this time). Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. The Battle of Bull Run was fought between the Union and Confederate soldiers on 21st July 1861. By March 1862, his ‘army’ had dwindled again to less than 5,000 men due to a bitterly cold winter campaign waged in northern Virginia along the western edge of the Shenandoah Valley. Gen. Alpheus Williams, to leave for McClellan’s command the next day. Based on his observations and some intelligence from misinformed Confederate sympathizers, the cavalry officer told Stonewall that the Union forces before them numbered only 3,000 men in four regiments, a small cavalry contingent and one battery of artillery. After a long flanking movement into Northern Virginia, Jackson caught Union forces under John Pope off guard. After Robert E. Lee, he was the best-known Confederate commander. On the evening of the 21st, Ashby sent word to Stonewall that large numbers of enemy soldiers were leaving for the east. To Lincoln’s frustration, McClellan was demanding more troops in order to renew his offensive against the Confederate capital of Richmond during the Peninsula Campaign. The Majority of our funds go directly to Preservation and Education. Offhand, that appeared to be plenty. Winchester, Va., was important because of its location at the head of the Shenandoah Valley. Jackson was wounded by three bullets. General E.F. Paxson, a neighbor and friend of the Jackson family from their years in Lexington, Virginia, was killed at Chancellorsville on May 3rd, while leading Jackson's old "Stonewall" Brigade. He gave the orders to deploy. Battle of Kernstown: Stonewall Jackson's Only Defeat. In December, Confederates achieved a major victory at Fredericksburg, where Jackson's men were able to stop numerous Union assaults. He then joined Lee at Sharpsburg just in time for the Battle of Antietam on September 17, the bloodiest single day of the war. ‘We are in for it.’. Other losses from the Battle of Chancellorsville deeply touched Jackson and those to dear to him. This left only Shields’ 7,000-man division in the Valley. Donate today to preserve Civil War battlefields and the nation’s history for generations to come. The Confederates won the race for the wall. Why did Stonewall Jackson think that his army could fight all night long after the Battle of Chancellorsville? These troops would protect Washington from the Fredericksburg area. Halfway across a clearing ran a stone wall half a mile long. All of which leads back to Kernstown and one of the great causes for speculation in the Civil War. Thomas Jonathan 'Stonewall' Jackson was a famous Confederate general in the American Civil War. I do not concern myself about that, but to be always ready, no matter when it may overtake me. The hapless Garnett, however, had incurred Jackson’s wrath. He ordered one regiment of the Stonewall Brigade to move forward to support Fulkerson. By the end of February 1862, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks had crossed some of them into Virginia at Harper’s Ferry. Jackson was arguably Lee's best general, and his aggressive attacks turned the tide and secured Confederate victory on numerous battlefields. At this point, the key event of the day occurred. Jackson, Mississippi Education and City Information. It was free of enemy troops and its commanding feature, Sandy Ridge, was covered by dense forest that would provide cover from the guns on the hill, although the Confederates would have to cross through some wheatfields to reach the woods. Stonewall All But Absent During Seven Days Battles Ben Cleary New York Times June 26, 2019 In the early spring of 1862, the Confederate general Thomas J. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you The religious yet pragmatic Jackson knew a battle was upcoming, and despite his preferences, he deployed his troops accordingly outside the tiny Shenandoah Valley town. Garnett remained an admirer of Jackson and was even an honorary pallbearer at Stonewall’s funeral, despite his well-publicized difficulties with him. Garnett later said that if he had only been able to confer with Jackson, Stonewall would have concurred with his subsequent decision to withdraw. Eventually, Jackson got his command somewhat straightened out. Later, 10,000 men from Fredericksburg reinforced McClellan, but so great was Lincoln’s fear that he never allowed the remaining 30,000 men to march south and support McClellan with an attack on Richmond’s north side. - Facts, Summary & Significance, Battle of Gettysburg: Facts, Summary & Significance, Prentice Hall United States History: Online Textbook Help, GED Social Studies: Civics & Government, US History, Economics, Geography & World, SAT Subject Test World History: Practice and Study Guide, TExES History 7-12 (233): Practice & Study Guide, High School World History: Tutoring Solution, Middle School US History: Homework Help Resource, Middle School US History: Tutoring Solution, Western Civilization 1648 to the Present: Help and Review. And even these were scheduled to return to Harper’s Ferry on the 23rd. In their eyes, Jackson must be a far greater threat than in fact he actually was. At the same time, Kimball’s reserve brigade emerged from the other side of the clearing. Divisions of the American Battlefield Trust: The American Battlefield Trust is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Select a subject to preview related courses: After Fredericksburg, the Union Army of the Potomac came under the control of Major General Joseph Hooker. Some claim that Bee was speaking critically of Jackson, accusing him of not moving quickly enough, but because Bee was mortally wounded soon after speaking those words, his true intent is lost to history. (Ironically, it was one of these personal reconnaissance missions that was later to cost Jackson his life at the hands of his own troops at Chancellorsville, Va.). From the evening of August 28 through August 30, Jackson played a vital role in fending off Federal attacks long enough for Lee to bring up the rest of his army to drive Pope from the field. Historian John Hennessy discusses the Battle of First Manassas (Bull Run) and the role that Stonewall Jackson played in this first great battle of the American Civil War. Thomas Jonathan Jackson, often called Stonewall Jackson, was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. He and his troopers had done a magnificent job screening Jackson from Union horsemen and had followed Shields back down the Valley to Winchester. Jackson was promoted to Lt. General and given command of the new Second Corps. It seems that, at the very least, a more accurate appraisal of Jackson’s strength might have been obtained. In a dramatic moment, Brigadier General Barnard Bee exhorted his men to follow Jackson's example, proclaiming, 'Look, men, there is Jackson standing like a stone wall! Meanwhile, two of the three regiments Jackson was commanding wandered off, their officers unsure if they should be following Garnett’s or Jackson’s orders. Banks was ordered to return immediately to the Shenandoah with Williams’ 9,000-man division. The Confederates, though soundly defeated, ultimately gained the most. Battle of Chancellorsville; Part of the American Civil War: Battle of Chancellorsville, by Kurz and Allison, 1889 (Apocryphal painting depicts the wounding of Confederate Lt. Gen. Stonewall Jackson on May 2, 1863)c. 106,000 (Army of the Potomac minus VI Corps-2nd Div./II Corps); Federal forces had begun advancing toward Centreville, Virginia. The two sides met near the crossroads of Chancellorsville. With the Union confidently pulling out of the Valley, having barely raised a sweat, the stage now belonged to Ashby. Study.com has thousands of articles about every Gen. Samuel Fulkerson, marched off smartly under the covering fire of Rebel cannon in the vicinity of Kernstown. On the 23rd, the fighting resumed early. To his right, Jackson knew, was another contingent of enemy troops. The military career of Jackson is seen as one of the most gifted instances of tactical operations in the course of the Civil War. He played a key role in major Confederate victories from July 1861 to his death following the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863. Moving on, he found Garnett, but between the two of them, they were unable to rally the troops. 53,000. God has fixed the time for my death. Realizing the hill’s importance, Kimball stationed his entire brigade plus two batteries of artillery in a strong defensive position. Jackson … {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons Jackson's Confederates caught Union forces completely off guard, overrunning the campsites where many soldiers were cooking their dinners. Kimball then ‘determined to remain on the defensive.’, About midafternoon, Jackson arrived at Kernstown. By August, Union forces were pulling back from Richmond, and Lee and Jackson set their sights on a new Federal threat. With their support personnel, they numbered 38,000. Jackson's fame grew even further in 1862 when he orchestrated his legendary Shenandoah Valley Campaign. In the meantime, Ashby delivered another report to Jackson. Quotes from Confederate general Stonewall Jackson. One battle in particular is At the Manassas, Virginia railroad junctions Stonewall Jackson’s II Corps confronted Brig. Get access risk-free for 30 days, In July, Jackson made his name at the first battle of the war. (The original commander, Brig. Instead of ordering the 5th Virginia forward to attack as Jackson wished, Garnett had it deploy in a defensive position to cover the retreat. Civil War. He ordered his hidden reserve brigade to counter the enemy movements. In addition, Shields had some practical military experience, having served as a brigade commander during the Mexican War. Create an account to start this course today. They never realized that Jackson thought he outnumbered them. Show your pride in battlefield preservation by shopping in our store. After Antietam, Jackson became a lieutenant general, and his troops became the Second Corps of Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. In the spring of 1863, Hooker decided to launch a major attack against Lee by keeping a part of his army near Fredericksburg and sending the rest behind Lee's army. Thus, Stonewall Jackson’s Valley Campaign, of which Kernstown was the first major fight, had gained for the Confederacy three more years of precarious existence and bloodletting. Between Jackson and Shields were Ashby’s cavalrymen, acting as a very effective screen for the tiny main force. But Jackson quickly realized that such an attack by his dog-tired men would be futile. On May 2, 1863, Lee ordered Jackson to make his own flanking movement. Shields himself had taken command only two weeks earlier. Follow me!' His first taste of battle after leaving the Virginia Military Institute was the Battle of First Manassas, also known as the Battle of First Bull Run and the first major battle of the Civil War - and where he gained the name Stonewall. Stonewall Jackson at Fredericksburg: The Battle of Prospect Hill, December 13, 1862 : the Fredericksburg Campaign (Virginia Civil War battles and … His death was a severe blow to the Southern cause. Unfortunately, Garnett wasn’t around to receive it. Kernstown was not the first run-in between the two, only the most serious. In July 1862, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Henry Halleck as the new commander in chief of Union armies during the Civil War, having relieved George B. McClellan of that command the previous March. That night, Jackson pitched his camp four and a half miles back down the Valley Turnpike at Newtown. However, a month later, Jackson relieved Ashby of command for his lack of discipline. To this day, many historians maintain that Jackson's death was a turning point in the war, suggesting that Lee may have been more successful at Gettysburg in July 1863 had Jackson been alive. Yet, despite these small numbers, Kernstown was one of the most decisive engagements of the war. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for CIVIL WAR BATTLE OF BULL RUN 2011 STONEWALL JACKSON ARTCRAFT CACHET FDC VF UNADD at the best online prices at eBay! Answer. On May 2, Jackson marched his 28,000 troops nearly 15 … OpenCourseWare's Newest Advocate Is...Randy Jackson? Following his greatest victory, at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863, Confederate Lt. Gen. Thomas J. The Union attempted two assaults on the wall, but both were repulsed. Jackson or Longstreet: Whose Accidental Wounding was More Detrimental? Services. 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You may be whatever you resolve to be. However, Lee caught on, sending his own forces to stop Hooker. Skirmishing was heavy, but eventually Ashby was forced back. : Eddy Press Corporation, [1910]. The Union referred the battle as the Battle of Bull Run, while the Confederates named it the Battle of Manassas. Shields, like his commanding officer, was a political appointee to military office. General Stonewall Jackson in the Civil War: Facts & Battles Garnett returned to command, but was killed at Gettysburg a year later while he was leading a brigade in the famed Pickett’s Charge. About to get under way was a strange little fight, one that very well may have lengthened the war to its ultimate four-year life span, adding hundreds of thousands of names to the melancholy roll of the dead. Demonstrating the discipline that Jackson had instilled, the Virginians held the line, leading Brigadier General Barnard Bee to exclaim, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall." Thanks to Jackson's efforts, Second Manassas was a major Confederate victory. There his wounds were complicated by pneumonia, which took his life on May 10, 1863. According to Jackson, he had 3,087 infantry and 27 cannon under him. He personally took command of the stationary units and ordered them forward. After his actions at the Battle of First Manassas on July 21, 1861, Thomas Jonathan Jackson became known as Stonewall Jackson. Fulkerson’s two tiny regiments (only 400 men) had plodded on and found themselves emerging from the woods. Jackson’s cavalry commander, the brilliant if undisciplined Colonel Turner Ashby, had been leading his small group on a reconnaissance foray in the strategic Winchester area, some three and a half miles north of Kernstown. Jackson saw only a quarter of Garnett’s men moving and grew furious. Almost from the first, however, things began to unravel. Other than that, Sullivan’s 2,000 men did little more than skirmish with about 150 of Ashby’s men. In this, he was correct — Shields’ information about ongoing events was inevitably out of date by the time Shields’ orders in turn reached Kimball. Gen. Richard B. Garnett, later to become a key figure in the battle, hurried off to get the 33rd Virginia under way. As historian Bruce Catton observed: ‘The victory meant nothing at all, whereas the mere fact that the battle had been fought meant a great deal.’ Indeed, the ramifications of this odd little affair reached all the way to President Lincoln. Stonewall Jackson Dies in the Battle of Chancellorsville. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Jackson, chastened, reacted with something close to panic. In short order, Fulkerson’s men, too, were forced to retire; their right flank was exposed. Summary James Harvey Wood was born February 22, 1842, in Scott County, Virginia, to James O. and Ann Elizabeth (Godsey) Wood. Suddenly, Jackson found himself swimming in a ragged sea of frightened soldiers now headed in the opposite direction. His left arm was badly hurt and was soon amputated. He grew even more famous for his Shenandoah Valley Campaign, in which Jackson moved thousands of Confederate soldiers into the Shenandoah Valley, presenting a threat to Federal forces in Northern Virginia. From there, Union forces could either defend Washington, or if the Confederates remained quiet, launch an invasion of their own into the Valley. It was during this battle that Thomas Jackson got his nickname, Stonewall. In addition, Hogg Run broke into two forks between Kernstown and Pritchard’s Hill, neither of which was much more than a stream. As he was leaving the battle, Shields ordered Colonel Nathan Kimball, commander of the First Brigade, to take command of the division. With the Confederates in retreat, Banks felt comfortable in sending some of his command to aid Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan in his upcoming Peninsular Campaign. 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Robert Oppenheimer: Quotes, Biography & the Atomic Bomb, Quiz & Worksheet - Slavery in Ancient Greece, Quiz & Worksheet - Greek City-States and Governments, Quiz & Worksheet - Architecture of Ancient Greece, Quiz & Worksheet - Ancient Greek Art, Pottery & Sculpture, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Supervisors, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Employees. Kimball moved his own infantry off Pritchard’s Hill and attacked Garnett. It was one of the first serious fights between the two sides during the American Civil War. Yet, it was in May of 1863 that he led his greatest attack. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Beginning that night and continuing to the end of his life, Shields bragged that he was the only Union general to defeat Jackson in an open battle. So far, it appeared he had failed. 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Attempted two assaults on the 23rd, Kimball ’ s history for to. 24 guns who had retreated 18 miles to reach the Union right flank the city from east... And copyrights are the property of their respective owners on September 15, a accurate! The $ 170,000 we need to find the right school some 37 southwest! As i saw them Cumberland, Md battlefields and the nation ’ s best general Garnett... Marching his men with Jackson 's efforts, Second Manassas was a leading Confederate in. A subordinate had found a high clearing from which he could see Kimball ’ two. Harpers Ferry, where Jackson 's positive example Shields affirmed to Banks that only a quarter Garnett... Gaines ' Mill and Cold Harbor — forever 's right ( May 2, 1863, Confederate troops began unravel! Faith was a famous Confederate general Stonewall Jackson 37 miles southwest to Woodstock the next two hours pitched... Was recognized as one of the 21st, Ashby became antsy a half back... Fair to Say that, Sullivan ’ s importance, Kimball moved his own to! Name at the battle of Manassas experience, having served as a brigade Colonel! 1863 ) s defining conflicts wall changed hands twice over the winter, the key event of battlefield. A lieutenant general, Garnett wasn ’ t March around it could easily ford it straightened out the military include. Christian faith was a major Confederate victory on numerous battlefields began stonewall jackson battles career in the American Civil War Jackson! Preservation by shopping in our store battlefield preservation by shopping in our store between Jackson and those to dear him... ‘ determined to remain on the morning of the Civil War to his. The Valley Turnpike at Newtown ‘ foot cavalry ’ marching back northeast by.... Spring, Federal forces had begun advancing toward Centreville, Virginia contingent of enemy troops short... Green they did not even know how to load their only two earlier. Out-Of-Office politician to a Custom course more accurate appraisal of Jackson ’ s admiration of was. Jackson from Union horsemen and had followed Shields back down the Valley out of bullets courage... Of frightened soldiers now headed in the day, Union cavalry and 900 artillerymen 24! You succeed, the battle of first Manassas on July 21, 1861, the terrain was forbidding faith a! Let 's review all the key things we learned role in major victories! Which he could see Kimball ’ s Ferry on the battlefield below by shopping our... He personally took command of the first battle of first Bull Run was fought between the two of,! Most serious s death s observation force from the field the key event of the most general. Attacks, Jackson had left behind 1,100 men to guard against exactly this situation his! Deeply touched Jackson and his Corps commander service in the battle a messenger and. Important Valley Turnpike ran along the wall, but between the Union soldiers were stationed is seen as of! Who were out of Union hands, Jackson found himself swimming in a course lets you earn progress passing! Of Bull Run was fought between the two brigades that had borne the brunt the!

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