22:1) Divine Eli, Eli, may Thy Name open the heavens to receive my body off the cross of space and time. Good and bad are more like the north and south poles of a magnet than our Western conception of good and bad. 14:16). Here elohim has to mean gods. This is part of the purpose of worship. The word el was originally written with two pictographic letters, one being an ox head and the other a shepherd staff. Hebrew names include not only names of remarkable people from the Bible, but pleasing attributes, like "pleasantness" or "swiftness," as well as names for objects, like "ewe" or "palm-tree." In the following verses Elohim was translated as God singular in the King James Version even though it was accompanied by plural verbs and other plural grammatical terms. Describes a variety of intensely close emotional bonds. However, when referring to the Jewish God, Elohim is usually understood to be grammatically singular (i.e. The ambiguity of the term elohim is the result of such changes, cast in terms of "vertical translatability", i.e.  These passages then entered first the Latin Vulgate, then the English King James Version (KJV) as "angels" and "judges", respectively. The classical documentary hypothesis, first developed in the late 19th century among biblical scholars and textual critics, holds that the Jahwist portions of the Torah were composed in the 9th century BCE and the Elohist portions in the 8th century BCE, i.e. The Various Uses of the Plural-form", The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Non-trinitarian conception of the Godhead, Henotheism § Canaanite religion and early Judaism, The New Oxford Annotated Bible: New Revised Standard Version with the Apocrypha, Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, "Elohim as angels in the KJV only in Psalm 8:5 (8:6 in LXX)".  The term contains an added heh as third radical to the biconsonantal root. the re-interpretation of the gods of the earliest recalled period as the national god of monolatrism as it emerged in the 7th to 6th century BCE in the Kingdom of Judah and during the Babylonian captivity, and further in terms of monotheism by the emergence of Rabbinical Judaism in the 2nd century CE. 6:5), and to “lo… However, the Eastern mind sees them both as equals and necessary for perfect balance. , The notion of divinity underwent radical changes in the early period of Israelite identity and development of Ancient Hebrew religion. – "Now what is the force of this quotation 'I said ye are gods.' Each of these words tells a deeper story in their Hebrew roots. Strong's: #2896 Of these four nouns, three appear in the first sentence of Genesis (along with elohim). , In Hebrew, the ending -im normally indicates a masculine plural. According to the documentary hypothesis, these variations are the products of different source texts and narratives that constitute the composition of the Torah: Elohim is the name of God used in the Elohist (E) and Priestly (P) sources, while Yahweh is the name of God used in the Jahwist (J) source. We position our hearts so that God can change and conform us to the image of Christ. The word "fear" in the this verse is the noun יראה yirah [H:3374], derived from the verb yarah.The common understanding of this verse is if one is afraid of or in great awe of Yahweh, he will have wisdom, but as we shall see, this is not consistent with its use in the Hebrew language. , In the belief system held by the Christian churches that adhere to the Latter Day Saint movement and most Mormon denominations, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the term God refers to Elohim (God the Father), whereas Godhead means a council of three distinct gods: Elohim (the Eternal Father), Jehovah (God the Son, Jesus Christ), and the Holy Ghost, in a Non-trinitarian conception of the Godhead. This is how you write it in Hebrew: אל , Alternatively, there are several other frequently used words in the Hebrew language that contain a masculine plural ending but also maintain this form in singular concept. , The Hebrew language has several nouns with -im (masculine plural) and -oth (feminine plural) endings which nevertheless take singular verbs, adjectives and pronouns. Very few sermons in our Western synagogues and churches would include the passage "I [God] form the light and create darkness, I make peace and I create evil, I am the LORD who does all of these" (Isaiah 45:7) as our Western mind sees these two forces as opposing opposites. ", Mark Smith, referring to this same Psalm, states in God in Translation: "This psalm presents a scene of the gods meeting together in divine council ... Elohim stands in the council of El. , The word elohim or 'elohiym (ʼĕlôhîym) is a grammatically plural noun for "gods" or "deities" or various other words in Biblical Hebrew.  The related nouns eloah (אלוה) and el (אֵל) are used as proper names or as generics, in which case they are interchangeable with elohim. Expresses confidence in God’s ability. The unknown origin of the Akkadian root of Habiru indicates the two words … , In the Latter Day Saint movement and Mormonism, Elohim refers to God the Father. This video shows the Ancient pronunciation of the names of The Father and Son.  There may be a theological point, that God did not reveal his name, Yahweh, before the time of Moses, though Hans Heinrich Schmid showed that the Jahwist was aware of the prophetic books from the 7th and 8th centuries BCE.. “ha” means “the” and “shem” means “name”. (Exodus 20:21). The same is true for all other concepts. The Canaanite pantheon of gods was known as 'ilhm, the Ugaritic equivalent to elohim. אֵל : el: When reading the Bible it is better to have an Ancient Hebrew perception of Elohiym rather than our modern western view. In the Ancient Hebrew mind there is no such thing as an "evil" person or thing. The Eastern mind is continually seeking both the "good" and the "bad" in order to find the balance between the two. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series, "The Rise of YHWH in Judahite and Israelite Religion", "El, Yahweh, and the Original God of Israel and the Exodus", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Elohim&oldid=998216722, Hebrew words and phrases in the Hebrew Bible, Latter Day Saint doctrines regarding deity, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Aramaic-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 09:56. Jeff A. Benner is dedicated to teaching proper Biblical interpretation through the study of the Hebrew alphabet, language, culture and philosophy. The word Elohim occurs more than 2500 times in the Hebrew Bible, with meanings ranging from "gods" in a general sense (as in Exodus 12:12, where it describes "the gods of Egypt"), to specific gods (e.g., 1 Kings 11:33, where it describes Chemosh "the god of Moab", or the frequent references to Yahweh as the "elohim" of Israel), to demons, seraphim, and other supernatural beings, to the spirits of the dead brought up at the behest of King Saul in 1 Samuel 28:13, and even to kings and prophets (e.g., Exodus 4:16). Karel Van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter W. Van der Horst (eds. The Elohist often presents Elohim as more distant and frequently involves angels, as in the Elohist version of the tale of Jacob's Ladder, in which there is a ladder to the clouds, with angels climbing up and down, with Elohim at the top. The Hebrew word Sabaoth was also absorbed in Ancient Greek (σαβαωθ, sabaōth) and Latin (Sabaoth, with no declension). Topics Definition of Hebrew Words God By Jeff A. Benner. §132h), e.g. This is a list of English words of Hebrew origin.Transliterated pronunciations not found in Merriam-Webster or the American Heritage Dictionary follow Sephardic/Modern Israeli pronunciations as opposed to Ashkenazi pronunciations, with the major difference being that the letter taw (ת) is transliterated as a 't' as opposed to an 's'.. Many ancient cultures worshiped a god in the form of a bull. during the early period of the Kingdom of Judah. Laser beam scans a very old celtic cross stone carving; Laser beam scanning the surface of a very old stone carving; However, when referring to the Jewish God, Elohim is usually understood to be grammatically singular (i.e. The Hebrew word for good is “tov” the more unintentionall to say good in Hebrew is “beseder”. as originally only a numerical plural) is at least highly improbable, and, moreover, would not explain the analogous plurals (see below). In a more romantic manner, Isaac loved his wife Rebekah (Gen. 24:67), and Jacob loved Rachel (Gen. 29:18), but Delilah manipulated Samson by challenging his love for her (Judg. The two poles of a magnet are north and south. Save Comp. If you stare at the sun, which is pure light, what happens? Certainly in 1 Samuel 19:13, 19:16 only one image is intended; in most other places a single image may be intended; in Zechariah 10:2 alone is it most naturally taken as a numerical plural. The word used here for gold is Zahab and the phrase the accursed thing is Cherem. It should always be remembered that the Hebrews often relate descriptions to functionality. (KTU 2 1.4.VI.46).. Among the elohim he pronounces judgment: ...", In Hulsean Lectures for..., H. M. Stephenson discussed Jesus' argument in John 10:34–36 concerning Psalm 82. An exact cognate outside of Hebrew is found in Ugaritic ʾlhm, the family of El, the creator god and chief deity of the Canaanite pantheon, in Biblical Aramaic ʼĔlāhā and later Syriac Alaha ("God"), and in Arabic ʾilāh ("god, deity") (or Allah as "The [single] God"). To understand the words "good" and "bad" from a more Hebraic understanding, these words should be understood as "functional" and "dysfunctional". Eventually Yahweh became / replaced El and El started to become used as a term for God. One is to be sought, cherished and protected, the other is to be rejected, spurned and discarded. It is cognate to the word 'l-h-m which is found in Ugaritic, where it is used as the pantheon for Canaanite gods, the children of El, and conventionally vocalized as "Elohim". Let us take light and darkness as an example. The word and its cognates were initially neuter but underwent transition when their speakers converted to Christianity, "as a means of distinguishing the personal God of the Christians from the impersonal divine powers acknowledged by pagans." , The Hebrew Bible uses various names for the God of Israel. That the language has entirely rejected the idea of numerical plurality in אֱלֹהִים (whenever it denotes one God), is proved especially by its being almost invariably joined with a singular attribute (cf. The witch of Endor told Saul that she saw elohim ascending (olim עֹלִים, plural verb) out of the earth. For instance, in the Ugaritic Baal Cycle we read of "seventy sons of Asherah". For other uses, see, Other plural-singulars in biblical Hebrew, Jacob's ladder "gods were revealed" (plural), sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSmith2010 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFPardee1999 (. Elohim, when meaning the God of Israel, is mostly grammatically singular, and is commonly translated as "God", and capitalised. From this came the result that James Strong, for example, listed "angels" and "judges" as possible meanings for elohim with a plural verb in his Strong's Concordance, and the same is true of many other 17th-20th century reference works. In conventional Hebrew, the word Zahab comes from a root meaning to shimmer. Most uses of the term Elohim in the later Hebrew text imply a view that is at least monolatrist at the time of writing, and such usage (in the singular), as a proper title for the supreme deity, is generally not considered to be synonymous with the term elohim, "gods" (plural, simple noun). Can good exist without the bad? We are all called to love the Lord, by expressing obedience to His commandments (Deut. Our western mind usually ignores these extremes and seeks to always find the "good" or the "bad". The Egyptians name for their bull god is Apis and the Sumerians called him Adad. The personal or proper name for God in many of these languages may either be distinguished from such attributes , or homonymic . You are again blind. Darkness on the other hand invokes Satan, lies and hate. This, however, is not universally accepted as later literary scholarship seems to show evidence of a later "Elohist redaction" (post-exilic) during the 5th century BCE which sometimes makes it difficult to determine whether a given passage is "Elohist" in origin, or the result of a later editor. Elohim occurs frequently throughout the Torah. We see light as good and darkness as bad. , The new religious movement and UFO religion International Raëlian Movement, founded by the French journalist Claude Vorilhon (who later became known as "Raël") in 1974, claims that the Hebrew word Elohim from the Book of Genesis actually refers to a species of extraterrestrial aliens.  The Eastern mind sees God as a perfect balance of all things including good (tov in Hebrew, Strong's #2896) and evil (ra in Hebrew, Strong's #7451). El. אֱלֹהִים קְדשִׁים elohiym kadoshim in Joshua 24:19 and the singular Aramaic עֶלְיוֹנִין the Most High, Daniel 7:18, 7:22, 7:25); and probably תְּרָפִים (teraphim) (usually taken in the sense of penates), the image of a god, used especially for obtaining oracles. In the Jahwist tale, Yahweh is simply stationed in the sky, above the clouds without the ladder or angels. God is both functional (such as seen in the Creation story of Genesis one) as well as dysfunctional (such as seen with the destruction of the flood). Posts about Ancient Hebrew Meanings written by kaylened. Here elohim has a singular verb and clearly refers to God.  Hengstenberg stated that the Hebrew Bible text never uses elohim to refer to "angels", but that the Septuagint translators refused the references to "gods" in the verses they amended to "angels". Here the Hebrew verb "revealed" is plural, hence: "the gods were revealed".
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